Islam's role in the development of science and technology

Development of science and technology (science) on one side does have a positive impact, namely to improve the quality of human life. Various means of modern industrial, communications, and transportation, for example, proved very useful. With the invention of the sewing machine, in 1 minute can be done around 7000 sewing needle prick. Compare if we sew by hand, only 23 puncture per minute (Qaradawi, 1997). Formerly Queen Isabella (Italy) in the sixteenth century it took 5 months with traditional communication means to obtain news of the discovery of America by Columbus (?). Then in the nineteenth century Europeans need 2 weeks to obtain news of President Abraham Lincoln's assassination. But in 1969, with advanced communication facilities, the world only takes 1.3 seconds to find out news of the landing of Neil Armstrong on the moon (Winarno, 2004). In the past people on the pilgrimage by a ship could take 17-20 days to get to Jeddah. Now with a plane, we only need 12 hours only. Subhanallah ... But on the other hand, science and technology often have a negative impact because of harmful and dangerous to life and human dignity. Atomic bomb has killed hundreds of thousands of people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. In 1995, Elizabetta, an Italian baby, born from the womb of his aunt after two years of his mother (named Luigi) died. Ovum and sperm of the original parents, it has been stored in the "bank" and then deposited it in his aunt, Elenna brother Luigi (Kompas, 16/1/1995). IVF in the West can walk though the origin of sperm and artificially inseminated himself instead of husband and wife (Hadipermono, 1995). Biotechnology can be used to transform microorganisms that are dangerous, even more dangerous, such as changing the genetic properties of influenza virus to be able to kill humans within minutes (Bakry, 1996). Cloning animals a successful pilot Ian Willmut produce cloned sheep named Dolly, recently applied in humans (human cloning). Environment such as sea, air atmosphere, and forests is also not a little damage and pollution is very severe and dangerous. Several variants of genetically modified food crops is also indicated harmful to human health. Not a few who use Internet technology as a means to conduct cyber crime (cyber crime) and to access pornography, violence, and gambling. Here, the role of religion as a way of life becomes very important to be visited again.Can religion give guidance so that we obtain a positive impact of science and technology, while eliminating its negative impacts semiminal possible? To what extent is the Islamic religion can play a role in controlling the development of modern technology? This paper aims to explain the role of Islam in the development and utilization of these technologies. B. Relations Religion-Science Paradigm To clarify, will mention first some basic understanding. Science (science) is the knowledge about natural phenomena that are obtained through a process called the scientific method (scientific method) (Jujun S. Suriasumantri, 1992). Medium technology is knowledge and skill which is the application of science in everyday human life (Jujun S. Suriasumantri, 1986). The development of science and technology, is the result of all the steps and ideas to broaden, deepen, and develop science and technology (Agus, 1999). Religion is meant here, is the religion of Islam, the religion which Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad PBUH, to regulate human relations with the Creator (with aqidah and rules of worship), man's relationship with himself (with the rules of morals, food, and clothing) , and man's relationship with another man (with rules mu'amalah and uqubat / criminal system) (An-Nabhani, 2001).How is the relationship between religion and science? Broadly speaking, based on a review ideology that underlies their relationship, there are 3 (three) type of paradigm (See John Farghal, 1990: 99-119): First, paradagima secular, that is a paradigm that sees religion and science are separate from one another. Because, in the ideology of Western secularism, religion has been separated from life (fashl al-din 'an al-hayah). Religion is not denied its existence, but only a limited role in human personal relationships with his god.Religion does not regulate public life / public. This paradigm look at religion and science can not interfere and intervene in the other. Religion and science both entirely separate ontological (relating to the understanding or the nature of things), epistemological (relating to the way of acquiring knowledge), and axiological (relating to how to apply knowledge). This paradigm reaches maturity in the late nineteenth century in the West as a way out of the contradiction of Christian doctrine (especially the Bible text) with the discovery of modern science. Originally used as a standard of Christian teaching the truth of science. But in fact many Bible verses that contradict and irrelevant to the facts of science. For example, according to official church teachings, the earth was flat like a table with four corners. When in fact, the earth is round based on scientific findings obtained from the Magellan voyage. In the Bible it says: "Later than that, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth wind and holding the four winds of the earth, lest the wind blowing on land or at sea, or in the trees." (Revelation-Revelation 7:1) If consistent with the Bible text, then the fact of science that the world is round would be defeated by the text of the Bible (Adian Husaini, West Why Being a Secular-Liberal, This makes no sense and problematic. So, in order not problematic, Christianity and science finally split from each other and each other should not intervene. Second, the socialist paradigm, namely the paradigm of the ideology of socialism is to deny the existence of religion altogether. Religion does not exist, dus, no relationships and nothing to do with science and technology. Science and technology can be run independently and totally separated from religion. This paradigm is similar to the secular paradigm above, but more extreme. In the secular paradigm, religion sekularistik function, which is not denied its existence, but only a limited role in the vertical relationship man-god. Who's in the socialist paradigm, is seen as atheistic religion, which is considered to not exist (in-exist) and removed completely from life. The paradigm is based on the thoughts of Karl Marx (d. 1883) is an atheist and look at religion (Christianity) as the opium of the people, because he thought religion make people sedated and oblivious to the cruel oppression of capitalism. Karl Marx said: "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of the Heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opium of the people. " (Religion is a lament being oppressed, the soul of a world that does not spirited, as he is a soul / spirit of the situation without the soul / spirit. Religion is the opiate of the people) (See Karl Marx, Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, contained in On Religion, 1957:141-142) (Ramly, 2000: 165-166). Under the socialist paradigm, then religion has nothing to do at all with science and technology. The whole building science in the socialist paradigm based on the basic idea of materialism, especially materialism Dialectics (John Farghal, 1994: 112).Understanding Materialism Dialectics is understood that views the whole process of change that occurs continuously through the dialectical process, namely through the contradictions that exist in the material that already contains the seeds of its own perkembanganitu (Ramly, 2000: 110). Third, the paradigm of Islam, namely the paradigm of the view that religion is the basis and the regulator of life. Aqidah Islam became the basis of all science. Islamic Aqidah embodied in what is in al-Qur `an and al-Hadith-be qa'idah fikriyah (premise), that is a principle upon which is built around the idea of building and human sciences (An-Nabhani , 2001). This paradigm ordered people to build all his ideas on Islamic Aqidah, not apart from it aqidah. This we can understand from the verse of the first down (meaning): "Read the (call) the name of your Lord Who created." (Surah sl-'Alaq [96]: 1). This verse means that humans have been ordered to read in order to obtain a variety of thinking and understanding. But all thinking it should not be separated from the Islamic Aqeedah, because iqra `be with bismi rabbika, which is still based on faith in God, which is the principle of Islamic Aqidah (Al-Qashash, 1995: 81). Islamic paradigm states that, word broke in science is not located on human knowledge or philosophy that is narrow, but is in God's knowledge includes and encompasses all things (John Farghal, 1994: 117). Firman Allah SWT: "And it is (knowledge) of Allah Almighty Covering all things." (Surat an-Nisa '[4]: 126). "And verily Allah, His knowledge really covers everything." (Surah ath-THALAQ [65]: 12). That is the paradigm that brought the Holy Prophet (d. 632 CE) who laid the Islamic Aqeedah berasas La ilaha illa Allah Muhammad as a principle of science. He invites embraced Islam Aqidah first, then after that make aqeedah as a foundation and standard for a variety of knowledge. It can be shown for example of an event when the time of the Prophet a solar eclipse, which coincides with the death of his son (Abraham). The people said, "This solar eclipse occurs because of the death of Abraham." Then the Prophet immediately explain: "Verily the sun and moon eclipses do not occur because of death or birth of a person, but both include the signs of God's power. With it Allah warns His servants ... "[HR. al-Bukhari and an-Nasa `i] (Al-Baghdadi, 1996: 10). Clearly we know that the Prophet has put Aqidah Islam as the basic science, because he explained, that the natural phenomenon is a sign of God's existence and power, nothing to do with one's fate. This is in accordance with Muslim aqeedah listed in al-Qur `an: "Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day there are signs (the power of God) for those who have sense." (Surat Ali 'Imran [3]: 190). This is the paradigm of Islam that makes the Islamic Aqeedah as the basis for all knowledge a Muslim. This paradigm has scored Muslim-devout and pious Muslims but also smart in science and technology. That result and the brilliant achievements of the Islamic paradigm that can be seen in the heyday of Islamic World science and technology between the years 700 - 1400 AD During this period the name of Jabir ibn Hayyan known (d. 721) as a famous chemist, Al-Khawarzmi (d. 780) as a mathematician and astronomer, Al-Battani (d. 858) as an astronomer and mathematician, Al-Razi ( d. 884) as a medical expert, ophtalmologi, and chemical, Qurrah bin Thabit (d. 908) as an expert in medicine and engineering, and much more (about the triumph of the Islamic World science and technology see for example M. Natsir Arsyad, 1992; Hossein Bahreisj, 1995 ; Ahmed et al, 1999; Eugene A. Myers 2003; A. Zahoor, 2003; Gunadi and Shoelhi, 2003). Aqidah Islam as the Basis for Science and Technology This is the first role played by Islam in science and technology, namely the Islamic Aqeedah should be used as the basis of all concepts and applications of science and technology. This is the paradigm of Islam as it has been brought by the Prophet. Islamic paradigm that should be adopted by the Muslims today. Not the secular paradigm as known today. Recognized or not, now the Muslims have been mired in a parrot and tail-Western attitudes in all things, in view of life, lifestyle, including the concept of science. Bercokolnya secular paradigm is what could explain, why in the education system followed by Muslims, taught a pragmatic capitalist economic system and do not know halal haram. The existence of secular paradigm that explains also why the remains are taught the concept of knowledge as opposed to the beliefs and the Muslim faith. For example, Darwin's theory is false and also contrary to the Islamic Aqeedah. This paradigmatic mistake must be corrected. It would need a fundamental change and a complete overhaul. By way of replacing the secular paradigm that exists today, with the paradigm of Islam that views the Islamic Aqeedah (not understand secularism) which should become the basis for building human science. But here is necessary to understand carefully, that when the Islamic Aqeedah be based science and technology, it does not mean the concepts of science and technology must come from al-Qur `an and al-Hadith, but the point is the concept of science and technology must be standardized benchmarks really wrong with al-Qur`an and al-Hadith and should not be contrary to both (Al-Baghdadi, 1996: 12). If we make the Islamic Aqeedah as the foundation of science and technology, it does not mean that the science of astronomy, geology, agronomy, and so on, must be based on a specific verse, or a certain tradition. If any verse or hadith that matches the facts of science, it is evidence of breadth of knowledge of God which encompasses all things (see Qs. An-Nisa '[4]: 126 and Qs. Ath-THALAQ [65]: 12), does not mean concepts of science and technology should be based on a particular verse or Hadith. For example, in astronomy there are verses which explain that the sun as a beam of light and heat (Surah Nuh [71]: 16), that the sky (the material universe) come from the smoke (gas), while the galaxies created by condensation (concentration) of gas The (Qur'an Fushshilat [41]: 11-12), and so on. There are about 750 verses in al-Qur `an that this sort (see Al-Baghdadi, 2005: 113). These verses show how widespread knowledge of God that encompasses all things, and the benchmark on the conclusions of science, does not mean that the concept of science and technology must be based on certain verses. So, that meant making the Islamic Aqeedah as the foundation of science is not that the concept of science and technology shall be sourced to al-Qur `an and al-Hadith, but is meant, that science and technology shall be standard on al-Qur` an and al-Hadith. In summary, al-Qur `an and al-Hadith is a standard (Miqyas) science and technology, rather than the source (mashdar) science and technology. This means that any concept of science and technology is developed, must comply with al-Qur `an and al-Hadith, and must not conflict with al-Qur` an and al-Hadith it. If a concept of science conflict with al-Qur `an and al-Hadith, the concept was meant to be rejected.For example, Darwin's theory which states that humans are the result of evolution from simple organisms evolved over millions of years through natural selection becomes more complex organisms to become modern humans. Means, man now is not the descendant of the first man, Prophet Adam, but the result of the evolution of simple organisms. This contradicts the word of Allah SWT which asserts, the U.S. was the first man Adam, and that all humans today are descendants of Adam, not descendants of other creatures of fantasy as Darwin's theory (Zallum, 2001). Firman Allah SWT: "(He is God) who began the creation of man from dust, then He created the offspring of starch water (sperm)." (Surah as-Sajda [32]: 7). "O mankind, We created you from a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that ye may know each other to know." (Surah al-Hujuraat [49]: 13). Another implication of this principle, namely al-Qur `an and al-Hadith is the standard of science and technology, and not the source of science and technology, is that Muslims should took its science and technology from the source of the non-Muslim (infidel). Once the Prophet of Islam apply ditching around Medina, but the military strategy that comes from the tradition of the Persian Zoroastrian religion. Once the Prophet was also once ordered two companions memepelajari weapons techniques into Yemen, while in Yemen before its population is of the Scripture (Christians).Umar bin Khatab ever take administrative systems and data collection Baitul Mal (State Treasury), which originated from the Roman Christians. So, as long as not contrary to Islamic Aqeedah and Islam, science and technology can be adopted from the infidels. Utilization of Science and Technology of Islamic Sharia Standards The second role of Islam in the development of science and technology, is that the Islamic Sharia should become the standard of science and technology utilization.Terms of halal-haram (the Islamic sharia laws) must be used as benchmarks in the utilization of science and technology, after all its forms. Science and technology that may be utilized, it is that has been permitted by Islamic law. While science and technology that should not be used, is that Islam has forbidden sharia. Necessity of Islamic benchmark is based on many verses and hadiths that obliges Muslims to adjust their actions (including the use of science and technology) with the law of Allah and His Messenger. Among others the word of God: "So by your Lord, they (basically) do not believe until they make you (Muhammad) as a judge in the case that their differences ..." (Surat an-Nisa '[4]: 65). "Follow what is revealed unto thee from thy Lord, and do not follow the leaders in addition to his ... [i /]" (Surah al-A'raaf [7]: 3). Word of the Prophet: "[I] He that has done us no command over it, then the act is rejected." [HR. Muslims]. Contrast with this, is what is in the West right now and also Muslim countries that bertaqlid and follow the West blindly. Standard use of science and technology according to them was a benefit, whether it is called pragmatism or utilitarianism. As long as something is beneficial, namely to satisfy human needs, then it is considered true and valid to be implemented. Although it is forbidden in religion. The existence of standard benefits that can explain, why Westerners to apply science and technology is not immoral, inhumane, and contrary to religious values. For example, using atomic bombs to kill hundreds of thousands of innocent people, utilizing IVF regardless of morality (eg put the embryo in the mother substitute), cloned human (meaning humans reproduce a-sexually, not sexual), to exploit nature in a greedy though cause pollution dangerous, and so on. Therefore, it was time to benefit the wrong standard was corrected and replaced with the correct standard. That is the standard that comes from the owner of all the science that His knowledge encompasses all things, which is very essential to know which ones are beneficial to humans, and which is intrinsically dangerous to humans.Standards that are all the commandments and prohibitions of Allah SWT that looks practical and concrete is the Islamic sharia.


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